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An address to the tribal fighters in Islamic state, Iraq, Syria, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Yemen, Pakistan, Sudan, Libiya, Egypt and others | Khilafatul Mumineen

 An address to the tribal fighters in Islamic state, Iraq, Syria, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Yemen, Pakistan, Sudan, Libiya, Egypt and Others


Islam is a holistic system of existence that warrants affluence, superiority, growth, serenity, safety, fortification and expansion. However, all this is possible if we observe the commandments ordained by Allah and His Messenger to the best of our ability.

۞QUR’AN۞

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says in the Qur’an,

‘Say, "Is it other than Allah I should desire as a lord while He is the Lord of all things? And every soul earns not [blame] except against itself, and no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. Then to your Lord is your return, and He will inform you concerning that over which you used to differ”’. ﴿

[Qur’an 6:164]

‘And [the believers are] those who do not worship any other god besides Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), or kill a soul unlawfully-except with just cause-or commit adultery’. ﴿

[Qur’an 25:68]

‘Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors’. ﴿

[Qur’an 2:190]

O Prophet, urge the believers to battle. If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are a people who do not understand.﴿

[Qur’an 8:65]

And those who emigrated for [the cause of] Allah after they had been wronged - We will surely settle them in this world in a good place; but the reward of the Hereafter is greater, if only they could know. ﴿

[Qur’an 16:41]

‘O you who believe! Stand firm for Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), witness in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is closer to righteousness. And fear Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Indeed, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is Well-Informed of what you do’. ﴿

[Qur’an 5:8]

And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know [but] whom Allah knows. And whatever you spend in the cause of Allah will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.﴿

[Qur’an 8:60]

O you who have believed, take your precaution and [either] go forth in companies or go forth all together.﴿

[Qur’an 4:71]

 ‘Whoever kills a person [unjustly], except as a punishment for murder or [as a prescribed punishment for bloodshed, robbery and spreading] disorder in the land, it is as if he killed all of humanity’. ﴿

[Qur’an 5:32]

‘And who is more unjust than he who forbids the remembrance of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)’s name in the places of prostration [mosques] and strives to demolish them? It was not proper for them to enter the mosques but in a state of fear [fearing Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)]. For them is disgrace in this world and there is a dreadful torment for them in the Hereafter’. ﴿

[Qur’an 2:114]

‘But he who kills a Muslim deliberately, his recompense will be Hell, wherein will he abide for ages. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will afflict him with His wrath and will curse him. And He has prepared for him a dreadful torment’. ﴿

[Qur’an 4:93]

‘Indeed, those who subject the believing men and women to tribulation [fatanu] and then do not repent, for them is the punishment of Hell, and for them is a burning torment’. ﴿

[Qur’an 85:10]

‘And those who hurt the believing men and women without their doing anything [wrong], surely they bear the burden of slander and clear sin’. ﴿

[Qur’an 33:58]

‘And do not consume one another's wealth unjustly or send it [in bribery] to the rulers in order that [they might aid] you [to] consume a portion of the wealth of the people in sin, while you know [it is unlawful]. ’ ﴿

[Qur’an 2:188]

And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of Allah. And if it returns, then make settlement between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. ﴿

[Qur’an 49:9]

‘Never should a believer kill a believer; but (If it so happens) by mistake, (compensation is due): If one (so) kills a believer, it is ordained that he should free a believing slave, and pay compensation to the deceased's family, unless they remit it freely. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is enough). If he belonged to a people with whom ye have treaty of Mutual alliance, compensation should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, (is prescribed) a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah: for Allah hath all knowledge and all wisdom.’ ﴿

[Qur’an 4:92]

‘Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just’. ﴿

[Qur’an 60:8]

And when there comes to them information about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them, then the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would have known about it. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have followed Satan, except for a few.’﴿

[Qur’an 4:83]

Allah does not like the public mention of evil except by one who has been wronged. And ever is Allah Hearing and Knowing.﴿

[Qur’an 4:148]

O you who have believed, prescribed for you is legal retribution for those murdered - the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But whoever overlooks from his brother anything, then there should be a suitable follow-up and payment to him with good conduct. This is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy. But whoever transgresses after that will have a painful punishment. And there is for you in legal retribution [saving of] life, O you [people] of understanding, that you may become righteous.﴿

[Qur’an 2:178-179]

‘When they disregarded the warnings that had been given them, We rescued those who forbade Evil; but We visited the wrong-doers with a grievous punishment because they were given to transgression.’﴿

[Qur’an 7:165]

You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah. If only the People of the Scripture had believed, it would have been better for them. Among them are believers, but most of them are defiantly disobedient.﴿

[Qur’an 3:110]

O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.’﴿

[Qur’an 4:59]

The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and establish prayer and give Zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. Those - Allah will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.’﴿

[Qur’an 9:71]

And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.’﴿

[Qur’an 5:2]

‘[The believers are those] who, if We establish their rule in the earth, establish the prayer, pay the Zakat, enjoin the good and forbid the evil. And to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) belongs the final results of all things.’﴿

[Qur’an 22:41]

۞HADITH۞

 

Abd Allah Ibn Amr (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The Muslim is he from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abd Allah Umar (رضي الله عنه) said, ‘A man asked the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), “What kind of Islam is best?”

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied,

 “That you serve food and give the salutation of peace to the one whom you know and the one whom you do not know”’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

According to Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The Muslim is the brother of his fellow Muslim. He does not wrong him or leave him helpless. Whoever attends to his brother’s need, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will attend to his need. If someone relieves a Muslim of a distress in the world, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will relieve him of one of the distresses of the Day of Resurrection. And if someone covers the fault of a Muslim, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will cover his faults on the Day of Resurrection’

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

According to Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The Muslim is the brother of a fellow Muslim; he does not wrong him, abandon him or look down upon him. Piety [Taqwa] is right here [and the Prophet pointed to his blessed chest thrice]. It is evil enough for a Muslim to look down upon his brother Muslim. The Muslim’s blood, property and honour are forbidden for the other Muslim’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

According to Abd Allah Ibn Masud (رضي الله عنه) the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)  said,

‘Reviling a Muslim is immorality, and fighting him is disbelief’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Al-Numan Ibn al-Bashir (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘In their mutual love, mercy and compassion, the true believers are like the physical body. If one of its organs is afflicted with pain, the rest of the body rallies to it with sleeplessness and fever’

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

According to Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The most complete of the believers in faith is the finest of them in moral character, and the best of you are those who are the kindest towards your womenfolk’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Abd Allah (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The true believer is not a defamer or curser or one given to vulgarities and obscenities’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Abd Allah Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) said, ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) a circumambulating around the Kaba and addressing it, saying,

“How excellent you are and how sweet your smell is! How grand you are and how grand your sacredness is! By the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s soul, the inviolability of a believer’s property and blood is greater in the sight of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) than your sacredness. We must think only well of a believer”.’

[Narrated by Ibn Majah]

Anas Ibn Malik (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘There are three characteristics of faith: if someone is angry, his anger does not lead him to commit an evil act; if someone is pleased, his pleasure does not cause him to depart from the truth; and if someone is powerful, he does not engage in that which is not his right’.

[Narrated by al-Tabarani]

Imam al-Nasai and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal reported from Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

 ‘The true believer [Mumin] is he whom people trust with regard to their blood and their properties’.

[Narrated by al-Nasai]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘He who believes in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the Last Day, let him abstain from harming his neighbour; he who believes in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the Last Day, let him honour his guest; and he who believes in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the Last Day, let him say that which is good, or remain silent’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abu Shurayh (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet said, ‘By Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), he does not truly believe! By Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), he does not truly believe! By Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), he does not truly believe!’ Someone asked, ‘Who, O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)?’ He said ‘He whose neighbour is not safe from his hurtful behaviour’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

This concept is also validated by the hadith,

‘He who is untrustworthy has no faith’.

[Narrated by Ibn Hibban]

For that reason, when someone asked the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), ‘Who is a believer?’ he replied,

‘[The believer is he] whom people trust with their property and their persons’.

[Narrated by Ibn Majah]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) made it a precondition for one to attain good character:

‘If someone spends the night satiated while his neighbour is hungry, he has not believed in me’.

[Narrated by al-Tabarani]

Abu Shurayh al-Khuzai (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Whoever believes in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the Last Day, let him behave with excellence towards his neighbour’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Abu Dharr al-Ghifari (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Fear Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) wherever you may be, follow up a bad deed with a good deed and it will efface it, and deal with people with good character’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Abd Allah Ibn Masud (رضي الله عنه) reported, ‘A man said, “O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! When shall I become spiritually excellent?” The Prophet a replied,

“If your neighbours say, ‘You are spiritually excellent’, you are spiritually excellent, and if they say, ‘You are an evildoer’, then you are an evildoer”!’

[Narrated by Ibn Majah]

Jabir (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Indeed, amongst the dearest of you to me, and those of you seated closest to me on the Day of Resurrection, are the finest of you in moral character’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Aisha (رضي الله عنها) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The believer will surely attain, by the excellence of his moral character, the degree of the one steadfast in prayers and fasting’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Ibn Masud (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The Hellfire is forbidden for every mild-mannered and even-tempered person who is close to people’.

[Narrated by Ahmad]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘There was a merchant who used to give people credit. When he saw someone in difficulty, he would say to his employees: “Make allowances for him, so that perhaps Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will make allowances for us”. So as a result, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) made allowances for him’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) also reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘There was a man who was extremely lax in performing good deeds and he used to loan money to people. [When he would loan money out] he would say to his secretary, “Take [in repayment of a loan] that which is easy and leave that which is difficult and overlook it, for perhaps Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Most High will overlook us [our faults]”. When that man perished, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Most High said to him, “Did you ever do any good deeds?” The man replied, “No, but I did have a young servant and I used to loan money to people, so when I would send him to collect the money owed, I would say to him, ‘Take that which is easy and leave that which is difficult and overlook it, for perhaps Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Most High will overlook us’.” Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) then said to him, “I have overlooked your faults”.’

[Narrated by al-Nasai]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘None of you should point a weapon at his brother, for he does not know, for perhaps the devil may draw it out while it is in his hand, resulting in his falling into a pit of Hell’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

This has been elaborated in another hadith in which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Whoever points a piece of iron [e.g., a gun] at his brother, the angels will curse him until he puts it down, even if he [the one at whom it is pointed] is his brother of the same father and mother’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

The Prophet not only forbade pointing a weapon at someone, but he also forbade displaying it. Jabir (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) forbade that an unsheathed sword be handed to someone else’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Usama Ibn Zayd Ibn Haritha (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) dispatched us to fight against Huraqa, a branch of the Juhayna tribe, so we reached the tribesmen in the morning and defeated them. One of the Ansar and I jointly caught up to a man of that tribe. When we overpowered him, he said, “There is no god but Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)”. Upon hearing this, the Ansar held back from him, but I stabbed him with my spear until I killed him. When we came back, the news had already reached the Prophet so he said to me, “O Usama, did you kill him after he said, ‘There is no god but Allah’?” I said, “O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), he was merely seeking refuge. (He uttered the formula to save his life)!” He said again, “Did you kill him after he said, ‘There is no god but Allah’?” He kept repeating that to me, until I wished that I had not embraced Islam before that day!’

The version of Imam Muslim reads:

‘So he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) summoned him and asked him, “Why did you kill him?” He said, “O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), he caused pain to the Muslims, and he killed so-and-so and so-and-so, and I attacked him, so when he saw the sword, he said, ‘There is no god but Allah’!” The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) asked him, “Did you kill him?” When he said, “Yes”, he said, “So how will you deal with ‘There is no god but Allah’ when the Day of Resurrection comes?” He said, “O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), seek forgiveness on my behalf!” He said again: “So how will you deal with ‘There is no god but Allah’ when the Day of Resurrection comes?” He then kept saying, without adding anything: “How will you deal with ‘There is no god but Allah’ when the Day of Resurrection comes?”’

[Narrated by Muslim]

Miqdad Ibn Aswad (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘I said to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), “What do you think, if I meet a man of the disbelievers and we fight and he strikes one of my hands with his sword and cuts it off and then takes refuge from me behind a tree and says, ‘I have surrendered to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)’? Should I kill him, O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), after he has said that?” The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “No. Do not kill him. If you were to kill him, then he would be in your position [i.e., Muslim] before you killed him and you would be in his position [i.e., disbeliever] before he said that word which he said”.’

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet said,

‘If anyone helps in the murder of a believer—even if with only a few words—he will meet Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) with the words written on his forehead: “hopeless of Allah’s mercy”.’

[Narrated by Ibn Majah]

Abd Allah Ibn Amr (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Certainly, the passing away of the entire world is less in the sight of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) than the murder of a single Muslim’

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Abd Allah Ibn Burayda (رضي الله عنه) reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Killing a believer is a more serious matter in the sight of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) than the destruction of the entire world’.

[Narrated by al-Nasai]

Abd Allah Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Do not revert as disbelievers after me by striking one another’s necks!’

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

As the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was delivering his Last Sermon on the eve of the Hajj, he said,

‘Indeed your blood and your property are inviolable, like the inviolability of this day of yours and this month of yours and this land of yours, until the day you meet your Lord. Listen, have I conveyed the message?’ The Companions replied, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘O Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)! Bear witness. Let the one present inform those who are absent, for perhaps the one to whom it is conveyed will retain it better than he who hears it [directly]. Do not revert as disbelievers after me, striking each other’s necks’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه) and Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said regarding the murder of a believer,

‘Even if all the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth gathered together to shed the blood of a single believer, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) would cast them all in the Hellfire’

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Abd Allah Ibn Masud (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet said while describing the enormity of shedding blood unlawfully,

The first issue that will be judged between people on the Day of Resurrection is that of blood [i.e., murder]’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Time will seem to get shorter and knowledge will diminish. Miserliness will surface and tribulations will rise and haraj will abound’. The Companions asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), what is haraj?’ He said, ‘It is killing. It is killing’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abd Allah Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘We were once sitting with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) when he described the tribulations. He described them at length, until he mentioned the tribulation of al-ahlas. At that point, someone asked, “O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! What is the tribulation of al-ahlas?” The Prophet said, “It is chaos and mass killing”.’

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Abd Allah Ibn al-Samit (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will not accept any act of worship, obligatory or supererogatory, from the one who attacks a Muslim and kills him’

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Hisham Ibn al-Hakim (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Indeed, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) shall inflict His torment upon those who torture people in the life of this world’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه) reported,

‘The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) dispatched a military force and appointed one of the Ansar as its leader. He ordered them [the soldiers] to heed and obey him. The leader became annoyed with the troops on account of something and said, ‘Gather firewood for me’, and they gathered it. Then he said, ‘Kindle the fire’, and they kindled the fire. Then he said, “Has the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) not enjoined you to obey me?” They replied, “Of course”. The leader said, “Then plunge yourselves into it”. The troops started looking at each other [when they intended to enter it]. They said, “We have fled to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) for the sake of saving ourselves from the Fire”. They continued to procrastinate until the fire went out and the leader’s anger subsided. When they returned and submitted the episode to the Prophet, he said, “If they had entered it, they would have never come out of it. Obedience is only in that which is right”.’

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Abd Allah Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘A woman was found slain in one of the expeditions. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) forbade the killing of women and children’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘Indeed, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did not kill children; so you must not kill them either’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Anas Ibn Malik (رضي الله عنه) related that the Prophet said,

‘Do not kill any feeble old man, or any infant or young child or woman’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Al-Dahhak (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to forbid the killing of women and feeble old men’.

[Narrated by Imam Ibn Abi Shayba]

Rashid Ibn Sa’d (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) forbade the killing of women, children and the infirm’.

[Narrated by Imam Ibn Abi Shayba]

Ali (رضي الله عنه) mentioned that when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would dispatch an army, he would advise them,

‘Do not kill a young boy, a woman or an old man. Do not cause fountains to dry up and do not destroy any trees, except those which cause hindrance during war. Mutilate neither a human nor an animal, and do not break a promise or breach a trust’.

[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi]

Jubayr Ibn Nufayl (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘A man passed by Thawban (رضي الله عنه), so he [Thawban] asked him, “Where do you intend to go?” The man said, “I want to wage battle in the path of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)”. Thawban (رضي الله عنه) then said to him, “If war booty comes your way, do not steal from it, and do not kill an old man or a young boy”. Upon hearing this, the man asked him, “From whom did you hear this?” Thawban (رضي الله عنه) replied, “From the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)”.’

[Narrated by Ibn Asakir]

Aswad Ibn Sari (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘We were once in a battle and gained the upper hand and killed many of the pagans, including some children. News of this reached the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and he said, “What is wrong with some people that they went so far as to kill children? Beware! Do not kill children at all! Beware! Do not kill children at all!” Someone asked, “Why, O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)? Are they not the children of the pagans?” He a replied, “Are the best amongst you not from the children of pagans?”’

[Narrated by al-Nasai]

Atiya al-Qurazi (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘I was amongst those judged by Sa’d Ibn Muadh (رضي الله عنه) [when he was given the authority to decide the fate of the plotters of Banu Quraya], but they were in doubt about me: was I to be counted amongst the children or amongst those who engaged in hostilities? So to find the answer, they examined my pubic regions and saw that I had yet to grow pubic hair [and thus was underage], so they grouped me with the children and I was spared’.

[Narrated by Ibn Hibban]

Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet said,

 ‘Any Muslim who unjustly kills a non-Muslim with whom there is a peace treaty [mu’ahad], Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will make Paradise forbidden for him’

[Narrated by al-Nasai]

Abd Allah Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘When the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would dispatch his troops he would say [to them], “Do not act treacherously, do not steal the spoils of war, do not disfigure the dead bodies, and do not kill children and priests”.’

[Narrated by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal]

Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) said,

 ‘The Prophet said as he dispatched an army, ‘Do not kill those who tend to the monasteries’.’

[Narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Beware! Whoever wrongs a non-Muslim citizen, or diminishes any of his rights, or imposes on him more than he can bear, or takes anything from him without his consent, I shall plead on his [the latter’s] behalf on the Day of Resurrection’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Thabit Ibn Hajjaj al-Kilabi (رضي الله عنه), who reported that Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) stood up, praised Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and said to people,

‘Beware, no [non-combatant] priest tending to his monastery should be killed’.

[Narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba]

Sa’idd Ibn al-Musayyab (رضي الله عنه) reported that Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (رضي الله عنه) would always say to the Islamic army as he dispatched it for Jihad,

‘Do not drown or burn date-palm trees. Do not kill any animal. Do not cut down a fruit-bearing tree. Do not demolish a church. And do not kill any children or old people or women. Soon you shall you come upon people who have secluded themselves in cloisters; you must leave them to engage in that for whose sake they have secluded themselves’.

[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi]

Salih Ibn Kaysan (رضي الله عنه) mentioned that Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (رضي الله عنه) while dispatching the Islamic army towards Syria said,

‘You shall soon come upon people who have secluded themselves in monasteries; you must leave them to engage in that for whose sake they have secluded themselves. Do not kill an old, feeble man or a woman or a child. Do not damage any populated area. Do not cut down trees needlessly. Do not kill animals unless it is for a benefit [to feed others]. Do not burn down date-palm trees or drown them. Do not commit any treachery. Do not mutilate (anyone). Do not behave cowardly. And do not take anything without right when distributing the spoils of war’.

[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi]

Rabah Ibn Rabi (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘We were with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in one of the battle expeditions, when he saw some people gathered around something. He sent a man out, saying, “Go and see what they are gathering around”. The man returned and informed him, saying, “They are gathering around a slain woman”. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “She was not amongst those who fight!” At the head of the group was Khalid Ibn Walid (رضي الله عنه), so the Prophet sent a man to go and inform Khalid: “Neither an [idolatrous] woman nor a hired servant should be killed”.’ [In one report:] ‘Do not kill children or hired servants’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that on the day of the conquest of Mecca, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Whoever enters Abu Sufyan (رضي الله عنه)’s house is safe, and whoever lays down his weapon is safe and whoever shuts his door is safe’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Anas Ibn Malik (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) a came to Khaybar at night, and when he came to a people [a force] at night, he would not attack them until daybreak’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saw an anthill that was burned and declared,

‘It is not fitting that anyone but the Lord of the fire should punish with the fire’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saw a sparrow greatly upset as someone had took her hatchlings and said,

‘Who has tormented this bird by taking her young ones? Give them back to her’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

“Does any of you recline on his couch and imagine that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has not forbidden anything save that which has been mentioned in the Qur’an? Beware, by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), I have exhorted, issued commands and forbade various matters. They are as numerous as what is found in the Qur’an, or more. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has not permitted you to enter the houses of the People of the Book without permission, or to beat their women, or to eat their fruit”.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

It is reported by Muadh Ibn Anas (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘There is no Jihad for the one who breaks into the houses of others or loots people on the road’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Asim Ibn Kulayb (رضي الله عنه) narrated on the authority of his father that one of the Ansar related, ‘We set out on a journey with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). The people were suffering hunger and were in need, so they forcibly took some goats and slaughtered them. The pots were boiling when the Prophet came over with his back resting against a bow, and he started turning our pans upside down with the bow and mixing the meat with the soil. Then he said,

“Eating stolen food is not any more lawful than eating carrion!”.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Imam Abu Ubayd al-Qasim, Imam Humayd Ibn Zanjawayh, Ibn Sa’d and al-Baladhuri have cited a hadith in which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) dictated:

‘Indeed, Najran and her allies are under the protection of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the guarantee of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). They are to be protected in their wealth, lives, lands and religion. This includes their priests, monks, those who are present amongst them and those who are absent and others amongst them, and their delegations and the like. They shall not be forced to change that (faith) which they are upon and no right of theirs is to be forfeited. No monk, priest or attendant amongst them should lose that which is in his possession, be it plentiful or scarce, and no fear or danger will threaten them’.

[Abu Yusuf in al-Kharaj]

Hisham Ibn al-Hakim saw Iyad Ibn Ghanam, a government officer of Homs, make a Copt stand out in the sun during the time of tax collection. He reprimanded him and said that he heard the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) say,

‘Indeed, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) shall torment those who torment others in the life of this world’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Khalid Ibn al-Walid (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘We fought in the Battle of Khaybar with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) aand [as victory loomed] some people hastened to enter the compounds of the Jews. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) then ordered me to deliver the call to prayer . . . then he a said, “O people! You have hastened to enter the compounds of the Jews, but beware, the property of the non-Muslim citizens is not lawful to you except that which is due”.’

[Narrated by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal]

The same hadith has been reported in a different wording, where Khalid Ibn al-Walid (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘On the day of Khaybar the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) forbade taking the wealth of the non-Muslim citizens’.

[Narrated by al-Daraqutni]

Junada Ibn Abi Umayya (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘We went to see Ubada Ibn al-Samit when he was sick and we said to him, “May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) improve your condition! Narrate to us a hadith that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) benefitted you with and you heard of from the Prophet”. He said, “The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) called us forward and we pledged fealty to him. In our pledge of fealty, he made us commit to hearing and obeying both when energetic and tired, and in difficulty and ease, and that we [as he a said] ‘do not come into conflict with the leaders that are over you unless you witness manifest disbelief [kufr bawah] for which you have proof with Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)’.”’

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

It is narrated by Abd Allah Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘He who raises arms against us is not from us’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Indeed, the best Jihad is a just word in the presence of an unjust ruler’.

[Narrated by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal]

Umm Salama (رضي الله عنها), the Mother of the Believers, reported:

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘Indeed, rulers will be appointed over you, and you find some things with them agreeable and other things disagreeable. So, whoever detests their bad deeds will be absolved of blame and whoever censures their bad deeds will find safety; but whoever is pleased with their bad deeds and follows them [will not find safety or be absolved of blame]’. The Companions said, ‘O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! Should we not fight them?’ He a replied, ‘Do not fight them as long as they observe the prayer [i.e., are Muslims]’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Awf Ibn malik (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

‘The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, who invoke Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)’s blessings upon you and upon whom you invoke His blessings. And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you, and whom you curse and who curse you’. It was asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! Should we not overthrow them with the help of the sword [i.e., arms]?’ He said, ‘No, as long as they establish prayer amongst you. If you then find anything detestable in a ruler, you should hate his action, but do not withdraw from his writ and authority’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Indeed, the ruler is a shield. One fights behind him and is protected by him’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Hudhayfa (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The tribulations a man faces with regard to his family, wealth and neighbours are expiated by prayer, charity and the act of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Hudhayfa (رضي الله عنه) also reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘By the One in whose Hand rests my soul, you must surely enjoin the good and forbid the evil, otherwise it is expected that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will send against you a punishment from Him, and then you will supplicate Him but will not be answered’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-‘Ala al-Hadrami (رضي الله عنه) said, ‘Someone informed me that he heard the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) say,

“Indeed, from my Ummah there are a folk who shall receive rewards equivalent to the rewards of the early ones [my Companions]—they forbid the evil”.’

[Narrated by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal]

Abu Hurayra (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘You must surely enjoin the good and forbid the evil, otherwise Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will cause the evil ones in your midst to gain authority over you, and then the best of you will supplicate but you will not be answered’.

[Narrated by al-Tabarani]

Anas Ibn Malik (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘We said, “O Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! We shall abstain from enjoining the good until we act on it ourselves, and we shall abstain from forbidding the evil until we also turn away from it”. He replied, “No. Rather, you should enjoin the good, even if you do not act upon it entirely, and you should forbid the evil, even if you do not turn away from it entirely”.’

[Narrated by al-Tabarani]

Abu Sa’id reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Whoever amongst you witnesses an evil, let him reform it [practically] with his hand; if he is unable, then [let him denounce it] verbally; and if he is unable, then [let him abhor it] in his heart -and that is the weakest form of faith’.

[Narrated by Muslim]

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Let not any man shrink from saying the truth out of fear of people if he knows it’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also warned people from abandoning the duty of forbidding the evil when they are capable,

‘There is no nation in which acts of disobedience are committed but they do not stop them, even though they are able, save that it is expected that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will cover them all with a punishment’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Adi Ibn Hatim (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Indeed, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) does not punish all for the actions of the few until the former witness evil in their midst and fail to stop it even though they are able. When that occurs, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) shall punish them collectively: the few and the many’.

[Narrated by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal]

Jarir (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘There are no people in the midst of whom a man does acts of disobedience, and they have the ability to stop him, but do not, except that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will afflict them with a punishment before they die’.

[Narrated by Abu Dawud]

Abu Ubaydah (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘When shortcomings befell the Children of Israel, a man would witness his brother committing a sin and forbid him from it, but the sin he saw from him would not prevent him from eating, drinking and mingling with him the next day. As a result, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) afflicted them with hatred, and the Qur’an revealed about them:

“Cursed were those who disbelieved amongst the Children of Israel by the tongue of David and Jesus the son of Mary. That was because they disobeyed and continually transgressed. . . . If only they had believed in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the Prophet and what was revealed to him, they would not have taken them as protecting friends; but many of them are corrupt”.’﴿

[Qur’an 5:78-81]

Abu Ubaydah (رضي الله عنه) added, ‘The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was reclining, and then he sat up and said, “No [you cannot escape the same fate] until you hold the hand of the oppressor and prevent him and lead him to the truth!”.’

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Al-Nu’man Ibn Bashir (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘The likeness of the one who is lax in applying the prescribed limits of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the one who transgresses against them is like that of a people who cast lots in boarding a ship. A group of them go to the lower deck and some of them stay on the upper deck. When those in the lower deck want water, one of them goes to the occupants of the upper deck until they are annoyed by him. He then starts to punch a hole in the lower deck [for water], and those of the upper deck go to him and ask, “What is wrong with you?” He replies, “I was annoying you, but I must have water!” If they take him by his hand and stop him they will save him and themselves, but if they leave him they will destroy him and themselves’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

 

۞SALAF SALIHEEN۞  

The First Rightly Guided Caliph,

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (رضي الله عنه) forbade people from cutting down fruit-bearing trees or destroying buildings [during war] -and the Muslims abided by his instructions after that’.

[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘I command you to observe ten things: Do not kill a young child, a woman or an elderly infirm man. Do not cut down fruit-bearing trees or demolish buildings. Do not slaughter a sheep or camel except for food. Do not drown or burn date-palm trees. And do not steal from the war booty or show cowardice’.

[Narrated by Malik]

Abd Allah Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) stated in one narration that when Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (رضي الله عنه) dispatched the Muslim troops to Syria, he walked with them for two miles and addressed them, saying,

‘I enjoin you to fear Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Do not disobey [the military commander] or show cowardice. Do not drown date palm trees or set crops on fire. Do not hobble animals and do not cut down fruit-bearing trees. Do not kill an old man or a young child’.

[Narrated by al-Marwazi]

During the caliphate of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (رضي الله عنه), he would give special instructions to the commander:

‘Do not spread corruption in the earth and do not disobey orders. . . . Do not drown or burn date-palm trees. Do not kill any animal. Do not cut down a fruit-bearing tree. Do not demolish a church. Do not kill any children, old people or women. Soon you shall come upon people who have secluded themselves in cloisters; leave them to engage in that for whose sake they have secluded themselves’.

[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi]

Husam al-Din al-Hindi mentioned an additional wording to this report in his Kanz al-Uummal,

‘And [do] not [kill] a sick person or a monk’.

[Narrated by al-Hindi in Kanz al-Uummal]

When Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) sent Yazid Ibn Abi Sufyan (رضي الله عنه) to Syria, he said,

‘Do not demolish any place of worship . . . and do not kill an old, feeble man or an infant or a child or a woman’.

[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi]

Thabit Ibn al-Hajjaj al-Kilabi (رضي الله عنه) reported that Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (رضي الله عنه) said while delivering his address,

‘Beware! A priest should not be killed in his church’.

[Narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba]

Umar (رضي الله عنه) in his letter to Abu Ubaydah (رضي الله عنه), the then Governor of Syria, said,

‘You must prohibit the Muslims from wronging and harming their non-Muslim citizens and consuming their wealth illegally’.

[Abu Yusuf in Kitab al-kharaj]

Umar (رضي الله عنه) remained mindful of the rights of the minorities till the last moment of his life. Despite his impending martyrdom at the hands of a member of a minority group, he said,

‘I advise my successor to fulfill the contract of the non-Muslim citizens who are under the protection of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم). I enjoin him to fight for them if the need arises and not to burden them with more than they can bear’.

[Narrated by al-Bukhari]

Aslam, a freed slave of Umar (رضي الله عنه), stated,

‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) wrote a letter to the military commanders stating that they should not impose tax on non-Muslim women or children’.

[Narrated by Abd al-Razzaq]

Imam Ibn Qudama stated,

‘A large amount of wealth was brought to Umar (رضي الله عنه), and Abu Ubaydah (رضي الله عنه) said, “I believe it was money collected from tax”. Umar (رضي الله عنه) said, “For certain, you have destroyed the people!” They [the tax collectors] said, “No, by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)! We have only taken with tenderness and ease”. Umar (رضي الله عنه) inquired, “Was it acquired without recourse to a whip or coercion?” They replied, “Yes”. He said, “All praise is due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), Who did not put that on my hands or during my rule”.’

[Ibn Qudama in al-Mughni]

During his journey to Syria, Umar (رضي الله عنه) saw that the tax officials were making the non-Muslim citizens stand out in the sun as their taxes were collected. Upon seeing this, he said,

‘Spare them from this and do not burden them with more than they can bear. Indeed, I heard the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) a say, “Do not torture people, for those who torture people in this life will be tortured by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) on the Day of Resurrection”.’

[Abu Yusuf in Kitab al-kharaj]

Upon hearing this, the tax official let them go.

Imam Abu Ubayd al-Qasim Ibn Sallam writes in Kitab al-amwal,

‘The Commander of the Faithful, Umar (رضي الله عنه), passed by an elderly man amongst the non-Muslim citizens who was begging at people’s doors. Umar (رضي الله عنه) said to him, “We have not been fair to you if we have taken the tax from you when you were younger but left you in helplessness in your old age”. After that, Umar (رضي الله عنه) issued instructions for the man to receive enough money from the public treasury that would take care of his needs’.

[Narrated by Abu Ubayd al-Qasim Ibn Sallam in Kitab al-amwal]

Imam Abu Yusuf described the same report in Kitab al-kharaj in the following words:

Umar Ibn al-Khattab (رضي الله عنه) passed by the door of some people and there was an elderly blind man there, begging. Umar (رضي الله عنه) put his hand on his arm from behind and asked, “From which group amongst the People of the Book do you belong?” The man replied, “I am a Jew”. Umar (رضي الله عنه) then asked him, “So why are you begging?” “I am begging for money”, the man said, “so I can pay the tax and fulfill my needs, because I am too old to earn money”. Umar (رضي الله عنه) took him by the hand and led him to his home and gave him a few things, then he sent him to the treasurer of the public treasury and said, “Take care of him and those like him, for by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), we have not treated him fairly if we benefited from him in his younger days but left him helpless in his old age! “[Then he recited the verse,]

Charity is only for the poor and indigent ﴿

[Qur’an 9:60]

and the poor are amongst the Muslims and this one is from the indigent amongst the People of the Book”. So Umar (رضي الله عنه) exempted him and those like him from payment of taxes’.

[Abu Yusuf in Kitab al-kharaj]

Abd Allah Ibn Hadrad al-Aslami said,

‘When we reached al-Jabiya with Umar Ibn al-Khattab (رضي الله عنه) there was an elderly man from the non-Muslim citizens who was begging others and asking for food. Umar (رضي الله عنه) inquired about him and we said, “O Commander of the Faithful! This is a man from the non-Muslim citizens. He is elderly and weak”. Upon learning of this, Umar (رضي الله عنه) exempted him from the tax that was due from him and said, “You burdened him with the payment of the tax and when he became weak you left him to beg!” Then Umar (رضي الله عنه) provided him with ten dirhams [monthly] from the public treasury because he had his family’.

[Ibn Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir]

Zayd Ibn Wahb (رضي الله عنه) reported that Umar (رضي الله عنه) sent him a letter in which he said,

‘Do not take anything without right when distributing the spoils of war, and do not commit any treachery or kill children. And fear Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) regarding farmers who do not wage war against you and do not kill them’.

[Narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba, Al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Qudama]

Imam Abu Ubayd, Imam Humayd Ibn Zanjawayh and al-Baladhuri have cited the following words of Uthman (رضي الله عنه)’s official order:

‘I hereby command you to deal with the non-Muslim citizens in an excellent manner, for they are a folk with a complete guarantee [of protection and rights]’.

[Ibn Sa’d in al-Tabaqat]

A Muslim who had killed a non-Muslim was presented in the court of Ali Ibn Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه). After the proof of his crime was furnished and found valid, Ali (رضي الله عنه) ordered him to be killed in retribution. The heirs of the killer managed to get the brother of the victim to pardon him in return for a blood money payment. When Ali (رضي الله عنه) learned of this he said to one of the heirs of the victim,

‘Did they [the heirs of the killer] scare you or threaten you in any way?’

He replied in the negative and said that his brother would not come back, even if the killer was killed in retribution, and that since the heirs of the killer would be paying the blood money, which would take care of the needs of his brother’s [the victim’s] family, he agreed to the reconciliation out of his own will without any pressure. Upon hearing this, Ali (رضي الله عنه) said that the final decision rested with him, for he knew better what to do; however, the operative principle of the Shariah is that

‘Whoever is under our guarantee of protection, then his blood is like our blood, and the blood money due to him is like the blood money due to us’.

[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-kubra, Al-Shaf’i in al-Musnad, Al-Shaybani in Kitab al-hujja ‘ala Ahl al-Madina]

 [Narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba]

Ali Ibn Abi Talib said, (رضي الله عنه) ‘The injured person or prisoner should not be killed, and the one who flees should not be pursued’.

[Narrated by Abd al-Razzaq in al-Musannaf]

According to another narration Juwaybir reported that a woman from the tribe of Banu Asad told him that she heard Ammar (رضي الله عنه) declare after Ali (رضي الله عنه) had finished the Battle of the Camel,

‘Do not kill an injured person and do not enter the house of someone who has laid down his arms, for he is considered safe. Similarly, the one who shuts his door is considered safe’.

[Narrated by Abd al-Razzaq in al-Musannaf]

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘The non-Muslim citizens pay the tax so that their blood and property should be as inviolable as ours’.

[Ibn Qudama in al-Mughni]

Abd Allah Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘The blood of a servant is inviolable, and is thereby similar to that of women and children’.

[Narrated by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya]

Jabir Ibn Abd Allah (رضي الله عنه) said,

‘They [the Muslim soldiers] did not kill the merchants amongst the pagans’.

۞CONCLUSION۞

 

Abd Ar-Rahmaan bin Amr as-Sulaamee (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

"I have left you upon clear proof, its night is like its day, no one deviates from it except that he is destroyed, and whoever amongst you lives for long will see great controversy. So stick to what you know from my ‎Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Orthodox, Rightly-guided Caliphs, cling to that with your molar teeth."

[Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, al-Haakim]

__________________

I urge people to translate and distribute this document in different languages.
الداعية الإسلامي / Caller To Islam

 


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