The prophecy of Ghazwatul Hind (Conquest of India by Muslims)
Ghazwatul Hind (The War on India) is mentioned in Ahadith and recently it has got some extra-ordinary fame due to its mentioning by certain ideologues and the discussion that has sprung from it.
Allah, The Most High, Says
“And fight them until there is no fitnah and [until] the religion, all of it, is for Allah (Surah Al-Anfal 8:39).”
"March forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of Allah. That is best for you, if ye (but) knew (Surah At-Tawbah 9:41).”
"O Prophet, urge the believers to battle. If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are a people who do not understand (Surah Al-Anfal 8:65)."
It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. 'Umar (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said
“I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and they establish prayer, and pay Zakat and if they do it, their blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf except when justified by law, and their affairs rest with Allah (Sahih Muslim, The Book of Faith 22).”
Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) reported the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) as saying
“He who dies without having fought or having felt fighting (against the infidels) to be his duty will die guilty of a kind of hypocrisy (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Jihad 2502).”
Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said:
"Whoever meets Allah without any traces from Jihad he meets Allah with a defect (Jami` at-Tirmidhi The Book on Virtues of Jihad 22/49).”
It is established in the light of some Hadith that before the end of time, Islam will one day prevail over the whole of the world and its authority will be established.
Thawban (رضي الله عنه) reported that Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said:
“Allah drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. And I have seen its eastern and western ends. And the dominion of my Ummah would reach those ends which have been drawn near me …” (Sahih Muslim, Kitab Al-Fitan wa Ashrat As-Sa`ah, Hadith 5144)
Miqdad bin Aswad (رضي الله عنه) reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) say;
“There will not remain a single house, of clay or fur, which the word of Islam will not reach either by bringing honor to the one worthy of it or debasing the one worthy of it; that is to say Allah will give them respect by making them its (Islam’s) followers or He will humiliate them by making them subject to it.” (Musnad Ahmad, Hadith 23865)
Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated
My intimate friend Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) told me that: “In this Ummah, the troops would be headed towards Sindh & Hind”
Hazrat Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) said that if I could find a chance to participate in any of such movement & (while participating in it) I be got martyred, then well & good; if came back as a survived warrior, then I would be “a free Abu Hurairah”, to whom Allah Almighty would have given freedom from the Hell.” (‘As Sunan Al Mujtaba’ of Imam Nisai)
Hazrat Thawban (رضي الله عنه), the freed servant of Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) quoted him:
“Two groups amongst My Ummah would be such, to whom Allah has freed from fire; One group would attack India & the Second would be that who would accompany Isa Ibn-e-Maryam (عليه السلام)”. (Musnad Ahmad, Hadith 22449)
Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated
“Definitely, one of your troop would do a war with Hindustan, Allah would grant success to those warriors, as far as they would bring their kings by dragging them in chains / fetters. And Allah would forgive those warriors (by the Blessing of this great war). And when those Muslims would return, they would find Hazrat Isa Ibn-e-Maryam (عليه السلام) in Syria (Shaam)”. (Naeem bin Hammad in‘Kitab Al Fitan’)
Hazrat Kaab (رضي الله عنه) narrated
“A King of Jerusalem (Bait-ul-Muqaddas) would make a troop move forward towards Hindustan. The Warriors destroy the land of Hind; would possess its treasures, then King would use those treasures for the décor of Jerusalem. That troop would bring the Indian kings in front of King(of Jerusalem). His Warriors by King’s order would conquer all the area between East & West. And would stay in Hindustan till the issue of Dajjal”. (Naeem bin Hammad in‘Kitab Al Fitan’)
Safwaan Bin Umroo (رضي الله عنه) reported
“Some people of My Ummah will fight with Hindustan, Allah would grant them with success, even they would find the Indian kings being trapped in fetters. Allah would forgive those Warriors. When they would move towards Syria, then would find Isa Ibn-e-Maryam (عليه السلام) over there”. (Na’im bin Hammad’s Kitabul Fitan pp.252-253)
2. Reception by Islamic Scholars
2.1 Ibn Kathir
Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer (رحمه الله) said:
“The Muslims invaded India at the time of Mu‘aawiyah (رضي الله عنه) in 44 AH, and there occurred things which will be explained below. It was also invaded by the great ruler Mahmoud ibn Sabuktagin, the ruler of Ghaznah who conquered India around 400 AH. He invaded the land, where he killed, took prisoners, and captured booty. He entered Somnath where he broke the greatest idol that they used to worship, and he captured its swords and necklaces. Then he returned, safe and victorious. (Al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah 6/223)
Alama Hammood at-Tuwaijri (رحمه الله) said:
What is mentioned in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah have mercy on him), which was narrated by Na‘eem ibn Hammaad, about the conquest of India has not happened up till now, but it will happen when ‘Isa ibn Maryam (عليه السلام) descends, if the hadith that says that is saheeh. And Allah knows best. (Ithaaf al-Jamaa‘ah 1/366) At-Tuwaijiri remarks that Ibn al-Athir has detailed the campaigns of Mahmud b. Subuktikin in his book al-Kamil fi t-Tarikh.
According to Niamatullah Shah Wali (رحمه الله)'s future prediction on Ghazwa-e-hind, India will undergo 4 wars with Muslims (two have been fought in 1965, 1971 with Pakistan).
He says the third war will be a regional war that will take place in the area comprising Chitral, Nanga Parbat, Gilgit China and Tibet. The war will be based on false accusations and will erupt suddenly. The war will remain undecided but as a result, an internal conflict within India would arise. As a result, whole Hind will undergo a chaos and turmoil and that will be start of the fourth battle i.e. Ghazwatul Hind.
The 4th and final battle will be a decisive battle. Warriors from the four corners would join hands and make an alliance against Hind and will conquer Hind upto the river Ganga. This Ghazwa will be like a doomed dark cave and at that time people will die everywhere with or without any reason.Shah Sahib said the Muslims of the western portion (West Pakistan) would have the blessings of Allah. The most responsible leaders, skilled scientists and highly professional and dedicated military experts would be available to them. All the Muslim countries would be looking towards them. Muslims from Turkey, Arabia, Iran and the Middle East would turn up with remarkable Ummah spirit to support them.
Naimatullah further said, It would be evident to the whole world that India would be clearly divided into two parts. Sikhs will slaughter the Muslims (happened during the partition by British). Due to hypocrisy and cheating there would be a lot of tragedies, massacres and carnage, Shah Sahib while referring to undemocratic governments in this region said, India would be ruled by rulers who would not be legitimate to do so. They would change the official rules and set of laws just like that. Law and order would scarcely prevail.
In this battle the people of Kabul would also come out in this battle and they would do massive killing of non-Muslims in such a way that the River Attock will be filled three times with their blood. This event would take place between two Eids. According to the fore cast, the whole Punjab will be captured by Muslims including Lahore, Kashmir and the Land between River Ganga and Yamna, the whole province of Uttar Pradesh and the city of Bijnaur. He also said that the King of Muslims of that region for whom he used the word "Shamseer-e-Ali, will give great defeat to the Non-Muslims of that region beyond their imaginations and Islam will dominate in the whole sub-continent up till 40 years.
Naimatullah Shah Wali on page 49 of his “Qaseeda” is predicting that “Beautiful Girls” and “Femme Fatales” will be captured after capturing Ganges and Jamuna.
Naimatullah Shah Wali on page 45 of his “Qaseeda” predicted about the “Victory” in 1965 War
On page 51 Naimatullah Shah Wali says that “Imam Mahdi (عليه السلام)” will appear
Niamatullah describes this fierce battle will last 6 years (mentioned as 6 months in some versions) and will be devastating for the mankind. Shah had also predicted names of some kings like Nadir Shah etc. that would emerge from lands of Iran, Afghanistan, Sindh and would snatch the Indian empire and use his sword to assassinate the people of Delhi. According to other Muslim Saints, the war will assassinate millions and only a person in 6 miles radius would survive to lit a lamp at night.
In the eighteenth century, the well-known Islamic scholar Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (رحمه الله) of Delhi invited the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali to invade India and dispel the Marathas, which he accepted.
2.3 Recent Scholars
Shaykh Muhammad Rafi Usmani says about this prophecy:
First Jihad on India took place in the first century after Hijrah under Muhammad bin Qasim in which participation of some Sahaba and many Tabi’in is related. After that many Jihads have been launched against India in different times so the question arises if the virtue of the Jihad mentioned applies to the first Jihad only or to all the Jihads that have happened in the past or will be launched in future?
At the end of his Urdu translation and abridgment of Al-Tasrih bima Tawataur fi Nuzul Al-Masih, Shaykh Rafi Usmani has given a list of the signs of the Doomsday arranged in the most probable chronological order wherein he, citing the above narrations, puts Ghazwatul Hind during the very times of the descent of Eisa (عليه السلام)
Pondering on the wording of the Hadith one learns that they are general and there is no reason to limit them to any specific Jihad, therefore all the Jihads that have been launched against the infidels of India in various times or that will be launched in future they will Insha’Allah receive the great virtue mentioned and Allah knows the best.” (‘Alamaat Qiyamat aur Nuzul Masih)
During the Kargil war, scholars who support this prophecy to bring Islamic Revolution include Zaid Hamid, Sheikh Akram Awan, Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai, Mawlana Yousuf Ludhiyanvi, Mubarak Ali etc.
3. History of Islamic Expeditions against Hind
The first Muslims arrived in South India (Malabar) during the Rule of Hazrat Uthman (رضي الله عنه) during a trade delegation. The first ship bearing Muslim travelers was seen on the Indian coast as early as 630 AD. Rawlinson claims the first Arab Muslims settled on the Indian coast in the last part of the 7th century AD (Ancient and Medieval History of India by H.G. Rawlinson)
Basically some Shias murdered the Ummayad’s Governor of Mekran and took shelter in Sindh with Raja Dahar and hence a campaign against Sindh was launched by Hajjaj Bin Yousuf [Governor Basra] who was also the Paternal Uncle and Father In Law of Muhammad Bin Qasim. (The Chachnama-An Ancient History of Sind by Kazi Ismail)
After becoming victorious in Constantinople Muslim Warriors launched numerous campaigns on Hind and Sindh. Abdullah Shah Ghazi (Abdulla bin Nahban) and Badil bin Tuhfa from the Umayyad army invaded Sindh in 711 CE. (Nuzahat ul Khawatir by Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi).
Hafiz Ibn Kathir in his book “Al Bidaya Wan Nihaya” has discussed the Hadith of Ghazwa-e-Hind and he included campaigns of Mohammad Bin Qasim, Mahmood Bin Subugtagin (Mehmood Ghaznavi) and many other Turks Kings. He also included China and Central Asia while interpreting these Hadiths (Al Taqreeb by Ibn Hajar Asqalani) Besides, Mahmood Ghouri, the Mughals, the Turks and forces coming from Central Asia kept attempting to conquer Hind.
Seljuks, Tughlaqs, Ghaznavis, Lodhis, Bahmanis, Mughals ruled large parts of India successfully.Further Reading:
◉ What does Qur’an and Hadith say about Jihad?
◉ Ghazwatul Hind: Signs of Judgement Day in Islam
◉ غزوۂ ہند
◉ Ghazwa-e-Hind (غزوة الهند) Mufti Umair Mahmud Siddiqui
◉ Ghazwah Hind (غزوہ ہند) Prof. Asmatullah
◉ غزوہ ہند کا تاریخی اور تحقیقی جائزہ